January – June 2018

Fourth Industrial Revolution

The future of the Western Cape’s agriculture in the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution

The Steinhoff Saga Management review - University of Stellenbosch Business School

January – June 2018

The future of the Western Cape’s agriculture in the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Fourth Industrial Revolution

  • USB Faculty
  • JUN 2018
  • Tags Reports, Leadership

10 minutes to read

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This report, produced by the Western Cape’s Department of Agriculture (WCDoA) and the University of Stellenbosch Business School (USB), looks at how agriculture in this province can be transformed if the farming sector, government and education institutions work together to harvest the benefits of the smart technologies emerging in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). The outcomes will include higher yields, reduced costs, foods with a higher nutritional value and more sustainable farming, ultimately leading to food security. Examples of the use of smart technologies in agriculture include:

  • Smart farming: This is also known as satellite agriculture, location-specific crop management or precision farming. Precision farming uses, among others, geographic information systems, remote sensing technologies, where smart farming also incorporates robotics, the Internet of Things and big data. This allows for precision planting, irrigation and weeding, field monitoring, and data management and precision weeding.

… agriculture in this province can be transformed if the farming sector, government and education work together to harvest the benefits of the smart technologies

  • Sensor technology: Sensors are used to detect events or changes in the environment and send real-time information to other electronics, enabling producers to farm more effectively. Sensors are also used in transport technology, to improve farm security and for product traceability. It can be integrated into the entire value chain in farming, supply chain or post-harvest systems. Sensors are bound to become smarter, smaller, cheaper and more integrated into farming systems.
  • Artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence or machine learning is a branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behaviour in Machine vision is the technology that, in machines, automates the capture of images and the analysis thereof. AI has many applications in smart and automated agriculture. Sensors around the farm give real-time updates to the AI system, which can be trained to send the correct response to that area. This can guide a farmer toward ‘perfect’ farming and when used at scale, would create tremendous efficiencies.

The outcomes will include higher yields, reduced costs, foods with a higher nutritional value and more sustainable farming, ultimately leading to food security

Agriculture and agri-processing are strategically important sectors for the Western Cape for their large absorption of unskilled labour and for their economic contribution accounting for more than 10% of the regional economy, more than half of its exports, and 20% of South Africa’s agricultural output.

By adopting the smart and interconnected technologies, agriculture in the Western Cape has the opportunity to reposition its brand: engaging consumers through new digital platforms, attracting new career entrants to high-tech employment opportunities, and becoming an attractive investment proposition for smart technology applications.

However, smart technology can also create a digital divide, where only certain role players benefit from 4IR opportunities. Hence, the agricultural sector and government need to work together to create an enabling environment for small-scale farmers to access technology, training and finance.

Technology will enable the creation of new types of jobs. Education and training – both for new entrants and new job types as well as upskilling and retraining of existing participants – would need to be prioritised in government’s response to changes brought about by the 4IR. Technology is a critical part of the 4IR, but aspects like energy and the environment, economics and policy, the consumer, and social change are also integral drivers of future change.

By adopting the smart technologies, agriculture in the Western Cape has the opportunity to reposition its brand

The researchers of the report provided five recommendations for an integrated response by the agricultural and public sectors, academia and civil society that will enable agriculture in the Western Cape to ‘adapt, shape and harness the potential of this disruption’:

  • Focus on growth in agri-economic outputs: The WCDoA should align its vision and strategic initiatives to accelerate growth in agri-economic outputs. Also, it should work with education institutions in the province to develop digital skills and capability for the agriculture sector.
  • Engage with consumers: Agriculture must engage with consumers, who are better informed and changing the demand for products as a result of their concerns about food safety, quality and nutrition, fair trade, the traceability of products to origin, and the use of chemicals in production and processing.

… smart technology can also create a digital divide, where only certain role players benefit from 4IR opportunities

  • Share information: The adoption of technology in agriculture will require a programme of communicating and disseminating information about new technologies and their impact, by suppliers, producers, government and scientists.
  • Support smallholder farmers: The development of commercially viable smallholder farmers will help to secure a sustainable future for agriculture in the Western Cape. Support to new entrants and existing smallholder farmers can include incubation and mentoring, education on technology and farming practices, business education, and access to finance.
  • Reposition agriculture as a brand: The 4IR can be used as an opportunity to ‘reposition agriculture as a brand’. The agricultural value chain offers exciting career opportunities to be explored, from food and animal science through to marketing and management, economics and technology. Young people must be made aware of the attraction of technology-enabled agriculture as a career.

… the gains of the 4IR in the Western Cape will be realised through leadership

The authors of the report believe the gains of the 4IR in the Western Cape will be realised through leadership.

 

Read the full report: The future of the Western Cape agricultural sector in the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution

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The Steinhoff Saga

The Steinhoff Saga

The Steinhoff Saga Management review - University of Stellenbosch Business School

January – June 2018

The Steinhoff Saga

The Steinhoff Saga

  • USB Faculty
  • JUN 2018
  • Tags Reports, Leadership

8 minutes to read

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The Steinhoff saga, possibly the biggest case of corporate fraud in South African business history, has dominated financial and general news since the company’s share price collapsed on 5 December 2017.

At its peak, Steinhoff was part of the JSE Top 40 index, the JSE Top 25 Industrial index and the JSE Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) index. In 2015, the company added to its financial credentials by securing a listing on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange (FSE).

However, the empire came tumbling down on 5 December 2017 when the Steinhoff CEO, Markus Jooste, announced that he would step down from his position “with immediate effect” and the Steinhoff board announced that the company had become aware of “accounting irregularities requiring further investigation”. In the days following the announcement, the company’s share price fell by 85%.

Corporate governance … conveys the inherent dilemma faced by any director, i.e. the need to drive the enterprise forward while keeping it under prudent control.

This report, titled Business perspectives on the Steinhoff saga, has been compiled by faculty members from the University of Stellenbosch Business School (USB). The report tracks the growth of Steinhoff from its humble beginnings in Germany to its transformation into a global holding company. It also analyses the downfall of the organisation, asking probing questions such as:

  • Was there a problem with compliance?
  • Was there a problem with the composition of the board?
  • Was there a problem with the structure of the board?
  • Was there a problem with transparency?
  • Was the board simply hoodwinked by a corrupt CEO?
  • Can the company’s operational integrity and reputation be salvaged

Corporate governance has been defined as the system whereby business organisations are directed and controlled. This definition conveys the inherent dilemma faced by any director, i.e. the need to drive the enterprise forward while keeping it under prudent control. The tension between performance (driving forward) and conformance (prudent control) provides a useful framework for analysing the corporate governance system of any organisation. At the same time, the degree to which the fundamental governance principles of accountability, honesty and transparency inform board processes is extremely important. It is generally accepted that “independence of thought” and “care, skill and diligence” are among the key capabilities that directors need to bring to the boardroom.

The tension between performance and conformance provides a useful framework for analysing the corporate governance system of any organisation.

Steinhoff appeared to comply with all legal and listing requirements in its various jurisdictions. This created a (false) sense of security for both investors and other stakeholders. Whether there was indeed full compliance will become clearer as the investigations into alleged accounting irregularities start to yield results. Yet it does point to the risks associated with ‘tick-box’ compliance systems that are not underpinned by an ethical commitment to respect and abide by relevant rules and regulations.

USB sees it as part of its role to reflect on real-life business cases and to extract general lessons to be learnt. Much can be gleaned from business success stories, but even more revealing sometimes are business failures.

The overall aim of this mini case study is not to further discredit Steinhoff or any specific individuals, but rather to distil business lessons that might alert people to new Steinhoffs in the making. As a business school, USB understands and values the contribution that entrepreneurs and private corporations make to society. This is why USB’s education and guidance are aimed at helping to breed a new generation of responsible business leaders.

… “independence of thought” and “care, skill and diligence” are among the key capabilities that directors need to bring to the boardroom.

The authors of this report are:

Piet Naudé (Editor), Director of USB

Brett Hamilton, USB visiting lecturer in Corporate Finance and USB MBA alumnus. He is also a director of First River Capital.

Marius Ungerer, Professor of Strategy at the University of Stellenbosch Business School.

Daniel Malan, Associate Professor of Corporate Governance and Head of the Centre for Corporate Governance in Africa, based at USB

Mias de Klerk, Professor of Leadership and Human Capital Development, and Head of Research at USB.

Click here for the full report: Business perspectives on the Steinhoff saga

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ubuntu

Decolonising knowledge: Can ubuntu ethics save us from coloniality?

The Steinhoff Saga Management review - University of Stellenbosch Business School

January – June 2018

Decolonising knowledge: Can ubuntu ethics save us from coloniality?

ubuntu

  • Prof Piet Naudé
  • MAY 2018
  • Tags Reports, Leadership

11 minutes to read

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Article written by Prof Piet Naudé

Why this study?
The state of the education system in South Africa has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years – but usually for the wrong reasons. With thousands of school leavers finding university education increasingly expensive and inaccessible, pent-up frustrations were finally unleashed in 2015 in the #FeesMustFall campaign. Along with demands for the freezing or even elimination of fees, there were calls for the ‘decolonisation’ of education. Resistance to colonial or Western philosophies and traditions being portrayed as the foundation stones of learning and professional success (sometimes referred to as ‘coloniality’) is not unique to African countries. Yet given the continent’s long history of colonial rule and still-lingering after-effects, the ‘decolonisation project’ has been gaining momentum.

Those who wish to decolonise knowledge are concerned that Western schools of thought, worldviews and ethics dominate university and other formal learning curricula, suppressing other forms of knowledge and even implying that they are inferior. Although the literature on decolonisation is replete with examples of how Western knowledge has come to dominate economics, science and commerce, it is more hesitant about what the practical alternatives should be. This paper highlights some of the key issues in the decolonisation of knowledge debate, using African business ethics ‒ embodied in the concept of ubuntu ‒ as a case study.

… individual personhood and autonomy are prevalent in all societies, including those in Africa, which weakens the argument that ubuntu is all about and only about the community.

Research methodology
The literature on the decolonisation of knowledge was extensively surveyed, supported by an analysis of some of the most important writings on the possibility of and prospects for a distinctive form of African ethics emerging.

What did the research find?
Western knowledge traditions have long dominated academic thinking in many parts of the world – even in those countries whose historical development has not been characterised by colonial conquest. Thus, African scholars of ethics will inevitably start their intellectual journey in Europe, studying the works of Plato, Aristotle, Marx, Nietzsche and others. Any appraisal of the ‘traditional’ or ‘indigenous’ knowledge systems of Africa – if addressed at all – is inevitably from a Western perspective.

There are three broad models for giving greater prominence to African business ethics: the direct transfer of Western ethics to Africa (transfer model), the translation of Western ethics into an African context (translation model), and the development of a uniquely African system of ethics via the so-called ubuntu principle (substantive model).

In the transfer model (the most basic of the three), Western ethics are accepted as the norm or the ideal and are simply used in an African setting without being subjected to any critical review. In such a case, the works of Kant, Hobbes or Aquinas would, for example, be prescribed as primary reading material in a university ethics course so that the impression of ethics as ‘colonial’ discipline is reinforced.

The desire for autonomy need not be at loggerheads with the value attached to relationships.

Research methodology
The literature on the decolonisation of knowledge was extensively surveyed, supported by an analysis of some of the most important writings on the possibility of and prospects for a distinctive form of African ethics emerging.

What did the research find?
Western knowledge traditions have long dominated academic thinking in many parts of the world – even in those countries whose historical development has not been characterised by colonial conquest. Thus, African scholars of ethics will inevitably start their intellectual journey in Europe, studying the works of Plato, Aristotle, Marx, Nietzsche and others. Any appraisal of the ‘traditional’ or ‘indigenous’ knowledge systems of Africa – if addressed at all – is inevitably from a Western perspective.

There are three broad models for giving greater prominence to African business ethics: the direct transfer of Western ethics to Africa (transfer model), the translation of Western ethics into an African context (translation model), and the development of a uniquely African system of ethics via the so-called ubuntu principle (substantive model).

In the transfer model (the most basic of the three), Western ethics are accepted as the norm or the ideal and are simply used in an African setting without being subjected to any critical review. In such a case, the works of Kant, Hobbes or Aquinas would, for example, be prescribed as primary reading material in a university ethics course so that the impression of ethics as ‘colonial’ discipline is reinforced.

In fact, it is ubuntu’s strong tribal character that lies at the heart of factionalism in Africa and corruption based on patronage.

Why is it so difficult to escape from coloniality?
There are two reasons why it is so difficult to escape from coloniality. Firstly, to construct a coherent ethics is a theoretical task. Such ethics is a second-order form of knowledge beyond the implicit, first-order knowledge that people share in their everyday lives. But the moment one starts to reflect on, for example, African indigenous moral convictions, there is no way to escape the long history of Western theories in which such reflection is then couched.

Secondly, what could traditionally be seen as ‘Western’ knowledge against which decolonisation should revolt has – via technological and economic globalisation – become so embedded across the globe that it is simply seen as knowledge and not as ‘Western’ knowledge. When a heart is transplanted in Africa, a vehicle is built in South Korea, and gold is mined in Brazil, the technology and stable scientific knowledge that make this possible have lost their ‘Western’ roots, and have become the way of shared, global scientific thinking with huge benefits to societies.

When a heart is transplanted in Africa, a vehicle is built in South Korea, and gold is mined in Brazil, the technology and stable scientific knowledge that make this possible … have become the way of shared, global scientific thinking.

The value of this research
This study asked some tough questions about the growing call for the decolonisation of knowledge in Africa and removed the usual gloss from the concept of ubuntu – particularly from the perspective of its value as the foundation of an African ethics system. Ubuntu does represent one of the strongest attempts to date to de-centre Eurocentric views and reduce the impact of coloniality, but ubuntu-driven ethics run the risk of reinforcing and perpetuating an ‘exclusive’ mind-set which is reminiscent of the much-maligned colonial era. The ambiguity of propagating an African ubuntu ethic is that – because it is developed in contrast to Western thinking and is expressed in terms that conform to Western academic rules – it may in fact be reinforcing coloniality.

The decolonisation debate is clearly complex and requires further debate and research.

Prof Piet Naudé is the Director of the University of Stellenbosch Business School where he lectures in ethics related to politics, economics and business. He holds an MA in Philosophy (cum laude) and a doctoral degree in Systematic Theology from Stellenbosch University.

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NPO

NPO accountability in a disconnected and divided South Africa

The Steinhoff Saga Management review - University of Stellenbosch Business School

January – June 2018

NPO accountability in a disconnected and divided South Africa

NPO

  • Professor André Rouw
  • MAY 2018
  • Tags Reports, Strategic management

11 minutes to read

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Article written by Commissioner Prof Ronelle Burger, Prof Marc Jegers, Dineo Seabe, Prof Trudy Owens, Prof Annabel Vanroose, Frederik Claeye, Nwabisa Makaluza and Ncedo Mngqibisa

Why this study?
Non-profit organisations (NPOs) have been part of the South African landscape for many years. Formally registered with the Department of Social Development (DSD) in terms of the Non-Profit Organisations Act (No. 71 of 1997), NPOs are located in all nine provinces and offer a range of services in fields as diverse as education, health, housing, culture and recreation, and religion. In addition, they often play an advocacy role for the communities that they serve. Yet NPOs are feeling the pressure as funding becomes increasingly scarce and the country faces a fraught socio-economic climate.

With South Africa having been wracked by state capture and other corruption scandals in recent years, it is not surprising that NPO stakeholders – that is, the government, donors, staff, beneficiaries and the broader members of society ‒ are preoccupied with the need for transparency and accountability. NPOs are, after all, public organisations with a duty to serve their communities in an ethical and cost-efficient manner. Although the term accountability is liberally tossed around these days, many (including smaller, less experienced NPOs) do not fully grasp its meaning and significance.

This paper supplements the limited literature on the South African NPO sector by identifying the different entities to which NPOs are accountable and by exploring the nature and impact of these relationships.

Rather than merely reflecting the brokenness in South African society, the NPO community should now … be given the opportunity to lead a process of change.

Research methodology
The research was conducted during the course of a four-year study (2014 to 2017) which focused on community-based NPOs in the Eastern Cape and Western Cape. These two provinces were chosen on the basis that they were broadly representative of the variety of communities and NPOs in South Africa. A random sample of communities was selected, with data drawn from the 2011 Census. For each selected community a sampling frame of registered NPOs was compiled, using a snowballing process. Interviews were conducted with a total of 195 NPOs. The interviews were supported by focus group discussions aimed at eliciting community perspectives on the NPOs in question. Given the protracted and complex nature of the survey, the analytical process has not yet been completed. The authors’ report therefore conveys the key findings from the survey.

What did the research find?
Accountability refers to an organisation’s obligation to keep stakeholders (particularly funders) informed of major activities and decisions. This is generally ‘upward accountability’. However, ‘downward accountability’ (to communities and other beneficiaries) has also been gaining traction in recent years, although it tends to be a less formal activity.

For many years the NPO sector in South Africa has had a divided character, shaped by the schisms in society. During apartheid, the sector was split into welfare organisations, which were subsidised by the government and largely catered to white communities, and other entities opposing the apartheid system which focused on helping black communities to survive in the face of an extremely oppressive regime. Although the dawning of democracy in South Africa dissolved the antagonism between the government and many NPOs, the sector faced new challenges. For example, some of the international funding that had traditionally been allocated to NPOs was redirected at the new government to support its development drive. Funding that was available to the NPO community often had stricter conditions attached, such as having to provide evidence of good governance, economic impact and accountability. These new demands unfortunately prompted a significant exodus of skills from the NPO sector.

… as the government is also the primary regulator of the NPO sector, NPOs could be under pressure to pursue a government-driven and possibly politicised agenda.

More recently, the numbers of registered (often informally structured) NPOs in South Africa have again started to climb. However, funding has become increasingly scarce, leaving many NPOs under-resourced and relatively ineffectual. Where international donor funding is available, it tends to be awarded to large and well-resourced NPOs which are perceived to have higher skills and are more likely to run sustainable operations. Smaller, less experienced NPOs are frequently side-lined. The fall-off in donor funding, which is a global trend and not just a South African phenomenon, has forced NPOs to turn more and more to the government for support. While constituting an economic lifeline for many, the drawback of this arrangement is that as the government is also the primary regulator of the NPO sector, NPOs could be under pressure to pursue a government-driven and possibly politicised agenda.

Today the NPO sector in South Africa is seriously fragmented – with small, under-resourced organisations pitted against larger, formally structured entities. Not surprisingly, the smaller outfits find it much more difficult and expensive to comply with assorted stakeholders’ auditing requirements, particularly in the area of financial reporting. In addition, demonstrating their economic impact is a major challenge. Another problem is that more affluent regions (such as the Western Cape and Gauteng) generally attract more NPOs than poorer regions (such as the Eastern Cape, North West and Mpumalanga), and therefore enjoy better representation at the community level. Not surprisingly, the disconnectedness in the NPO sector has complicated the policy-making process.

To help NPOs become more effective … the funding community and regulators need to make compliance criteria more accessible and harmonious.

The value of the research
This study lifts the lid on the dynamics in the NPO sector in South Africa and the challenges NPOs face in serving their respective communities. At the heart of these challenges is a lack of resources (human, physical and financial) which has forced organisations to follow funders’ agendas rather than concentrate on community-related priorities. Linked to this is a lack of professionalism in many NPOs, which has dented their credibility. These factors have conspired to weaken development efforts in needy areas. The literature shows that strong performance and accountability are intertwined. The complexities surrounding accountability and the measurement thereof have not been given particularly robust attention up until now and here the study makes an important contribution. To help NPOs become more effective and for their efforts to be felt across a greater geographical area, the funding community and regulators need to make compliance criteria more accessible and harmonious. To this end the results of the study, once fully completed, will be particularly valuable. Rather than merely reflecting the brokenness in South African society, the NPO community should now (with the necessary support) be given the opportunity to lead a process of change.

Click here for the full report: NPO accountability in a disconnected and divided South Africa

This research was conducted by Prof Ronelle Burger, Prof Marc Jegers, Dineo Seabe, Prof Trudy Owens, Prof Annabel Vanroose, Frederik Claeye, Nwabisa Makaluza and Ncedo Mngqibisa. Prof Annabel Vanroose lectured in Development Finance at the University of Stellenbosch Business School.

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Pregnancy in the workplace

The SABPP Women’s Report 2016: Pregnancy in the workplace

The Steinhoff Saga Management review - University of Stellenbosch Business School

January – June 2018

The SABPP Women’s Report 2016: Pregnancy in the workplace

Pregnancy in the workplace

  • Prof Anita Bosch
  • MAY 2018
  • Tags Reports, Leadership

7 minutes to read

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Article written by Prof Anita Bosch

The 2016 edition of this report, with USB’s Prof Anita Bosch as editor, published a collection of research papers on pregnancy in the workplace.

At first glance, pregnancy does not seem like a topic that should be linked to the workplace. However, it is clear that pregnancy in the workplace often leads to discriminatory practices, with one parent exiting paid work completely, and management experiencing discomfort in dealing with the HR issues.

In Chapter 1, Prof Anita Bosch outlines the reasons why pregnancy should be normalised and not treated as an anomaly in the workplace. The chapter concludes with aspects that HR practitioners should consider in dealing with the phenomenon.

If pregnancy is a reality of life and if paid work is also a reality for the majority of families … how can workplaces deal with this?

In Chapter 2, Italia Boninelli, Research Associate from the University of Johannesburg, presents a strong argument for the management of a woman’s career from a family planning perspective. The thoughtful advice should inspire women to take charge of the timing of pregnancies while at the same time focusing on their career goals.

South Africa’s family responsibility leave, which is the closest thing to paternity leave, seems to be lacking.

The South African Constitution protects women from discrimination based on pregnancy and birth. In Chapter 3, Prof Hugo Pienaar and Elizabeth Sonnekus, both from Employment Law at Cliffe, Dekker, Hofmeyr Inc., outline South African employment law considerations in relation to pregnancy. Their contribution includes an overview of legislation in the USA and Europe, as well as the stance of the International Labour Organization with regard to the protection of pregnant women.

Chapter 4 provides an overview of menopause. Here, Dr Linda Chipunza and Elizabeth Dhlamini-Kumalo, both Master HR Practitioners at the South African Board for People Practices (SABPP), provide interesting reading on a topic that is rarely discussed at work.

The sharing of maternity and paternity leave between the parents should be … more flexible.

The report is supported by the SABPP through its ongoing interest in gender issues in the workplace and by the University of Johannesburg.

Prof Anita Bosch lectures in Women at Work, Human Capital Management and Leadership at the University of Stellenbosch Business School.

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The SABPP Women’s Report 2017: Fairness in relation to women at work

The Steinhoff Saga Management review - University of Stellenbosch Business School

January – June 2018

The SABPP Women’s Report 2017: Fairness in relation to women at work

  • Prof Anita Bosch
  • MAY 2018
  • Tags Reports, Leadership

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Article written by Prof Anita Bosch

The 2017 edition of this report, with USB’s Prof Anita Bosch as editor, published a collection of research papers on various aspects of fairness impacting women in the world of work.

The themes of previous years’ Women’s Reports predominantly focused on visible and known differences between men and women, such as pregnancy and pay disparity. Fairness, however, is a more nebulous and debatable concept.

Chasing targets will render women mere tokens.

We often hear children whine, ‘But that is not fair!’ when they don’t get their way, which parents ignore as an attempt at achieving self-gratification. The same reasoning may be attributed to managers when employees make it known that they feel that they are being treated unfairly. It takes a thoughtful manager to stop and listen, for, often, in the perceived whine, is a little piece of truth, uncomfortable as it may be. This year’s report explores that alternative truth, in order to influence HR practitioners and line managers to give fairness some consideration.

More women than men are leaving their organisations, especially at senior levels.

Chapter 1, written by Prof Piet Naudé from the University of Stellenbosch Business School, considers how society leads itself to believe that our lived experience of gender relations is a given, and how we may start changing our thinking, so that gender relations in the workplace can improve. Prof Amanda Gouws, lecturer in Political Science at Stellenbosch University, extends the theme by providing a glimpse of fairness in the private world of families.

It is erroneously believed that women inhibit their own workplace progression by making certain choices.

In Chapter 2, she calls us to consider how gender relations are political, and warns against the consequences of the exclusion of care in society. Chapter 3 considers how women have been included and excluded from paid work, and how power relationships have changed over time. This chapter, authored by Prof Anita Bosch, provides a rationale for justice for women. The Women’s Report provides a glimpse of the world of work through the eyes of women, and how this view often leads to improvements for both men and women. In this regard, Chapter 4, co-authored by Hugo Pienaar and Riola Kok, both from Employment Law at Cliffe, Dekker, Hofmeyr Inc., focuses on paternity leave and how employment law may not be fair towards men. Prof Mariette Coetzee from the Department of Human Resource Management at Unisa wrote the last chapter, presenting an HR management view on fairness towards women at work.

Employers need to understand that both the workplace and the home are gendered.

The report is supported by the South African Board for People Practices (SABPP) through its ongoing interest in gender issues in the workplace. This was also the first year that the Women’s Report was co-sponsored by the University of Stellenbosch Business School and the University of Johannesburg.

Prof Anita Bosch lectures in Women at Work, Human Capital Management and Leadership at the University of Stellenbosch Business School.

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