Leadership

Simon Susman appointed as an Honorary Professor at Stellenbosch Business School (USB)

USB News

Simon Susman appointed as honorary professor at Stellenbosch Business School (USB)

  • December 15
  • Tags Our news, Leadership

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“One of the greatest tools to have is to never stop asking questions. By asking why and what you start building an information base and from my experience, the more you ask the more you can trust your informed instinct, says Simon Susman, the former CEO of Woolworths. He says during his career he has seen far too many people who jump to conclusions and come up with answers and not having asked anything like enough questions. “If you ask enough questions, inform your internal database, then you can trust it. And when you can trust it, follow it,” he says.

Susman was recently appointed as an Honorary Professor at the University of Stellenbosch Business School (USB). He is also the chairman of the business school’s advisory board. On his appointment, he said it was a huge surprise and was touched by it. “For someone who does not have a higher education to be given an Honorary Professorship is indeed a true honour.”

“I believe there is a huge role for mentoring in our society.”

In his new role, he wishes to contribute to mentoring. “I do a lot of mentoring in my current career. I particularly mentor a lot of young black entrepreneurs and I believe there is a huge role for mentoring in our society.”

Lessons over the years
“Over my career, I’ve learned not just lessons on how to fail but also some lessons on how to succeed. My own view that is deeply based in a set of values and if you stick to your principles and values, you will get a lot of clarity on that and if I can share that with some of the students then I would be very happy to do that,” he says.

Susman says the biggest lesson he has learnt over his career of 37 years with the company, is that it is okay to fail. “In the failing comes the learning. I think there are a lot more learnings that come out of when you get things wrong, whether it is people choices, strategic choices, product choices or relationships.”

He says in his career he made quite a few mistakes and at the time they feel terrible and that you have let everyone down. “But it doesn’t mean that you are a failure; it means you tried something. So I think one should encourage all young business people to be prepared to make mistakes, just go for it and learn from it,” he says.

Year of change
Susman says 2020 has been a year of change. “But I want to qualify the change. It’s been a year of accelerated change. The businesses and charities that I’m involved with are all seeing an acceleration of changes that were there beforehand, some of which we have recognised and some we hadn’t recognised. But when you look back, Covid-19 has been an accelerator.

“The business school needs both concepts of integrated online learning and physical learning.”

“The business school needs both concepts of integrated online learning and physical learning. I think the biggest thing we are going to have to learn is how we truly manage online learning distance learning and the mix of that with physical learning to create a cultural, integrated experience,” he says.

Businesses and educational institutions forging long-term collaborations
“As much as a business is driven by how it sees the market and how it can carve out its own space, I think that universities create a context for future leaders who can think differently. One of the things I’ve been discussing with Prof Piet Naudé (past USB director), is that I think in South Africa and Africa we live in a world of immense uncertainty – political uncertainty, economic uncertainty, cultural uncertainty, confusion, guilt, and anger.

“I think that universities create a context for future leaders who can think differently.”

“All of these things that drive businesses on this continent and creating leaders who can chart a path through that confusion is one of the primary roles of the business school,” he says.

“If a business school can produce leaders who can operate in uncertainty in a principled way, understand the changing world, then they form the supply chain of the thought leaders and businesses themselves. You need those thought leaders driving the businesses. So for me, it’s a very close integration of what the business school can provide and what businesses need in the future,” he says.

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New book explores Japanese philosophy in modern business world

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New book explores Japanese philosophy in modern business world

  • December 15
  • Tags Our news, Leadership

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Prof Frank Brueck, honorary professor at USB, published a book based on the wisdom of the old Japanese philosophy of IKIGAI (the reason/purpose of life). He developed a unique model to review your own (working) life in these trying times. In this new book Ikigai is transferred to the modern business world. It highlights how we can achieve purpose and meaning as individually as leaders and collectively as organisations. Here he shares more about the book:

How would you define meaningful leadership?Meaningful leadership is fuelled by purpose and an integrative power connecting the leader with him/herself as well as with stakeholders and the environment. What that means can be well described along the lines of the Japanese life philosophy called Ikigai. “Iki” in this context means Life and “Gai” can be translated as Reason. So, we are talking about the reason for life. In the case of a leader this would be the reason to work or more precisely the reason to lead. In order to arrive at this ikigai a leader has to integrate the following dimensions at a very high level:

  • What I am good at (capabilities, skills, knowledge)
  • What I love to do (passion and motivation)
  • What the world needs (sustainability, social impact)
  • What I need for the market (business acumen, market orientation)

Once this integration is established, it ultimately means achieving a fulfilling and satisfying state in work and leadership creating meaning for oneself and others. The energy for this is generated from the personal experience of satisfaction and even flow, from authenticity in behaviour which takes away the exhausting need to play the role of leader instead of being a leader, as well as from the fact that the needs of the world around is also taken into account.

How can leaders contribute to meaningful work?An Ikigai leader will lead by example and create an atmosphere that supports the development of collective purpose in the context of the organisation. This is done be making sure that the needs of the world are taken into account in decision-making and by creating an atmosphere of benevolence in the organisation. Employees will experience and be motivated by the fact that their needs to develop further in the four ikigai dimensions are taken seriously.  Once they move closer to a state of ikigai themselves with all the positive side effects of feeling empowered and supported in a positive working attitude, they will subscribe to the collective purpose as well. This way even smaller tasks can become meaningful.

What are the eight IKIGAI leader types?Any combination of the four main dimensions of ikigai in leadership can provide valuable insights into where a leader is positioned in the model and which Ikigai Leader Type most accurately describes the person and the leadership style. The segments can be best identified by regarding those areas of the graphic model in figure 1 more closely where two or more circle dimensions overlap. These eight segments with two or three overlapping dimensions are situated around the centrally positioned ikigai area, where all four dimensions overlap. Each of these eight segments represents a distinctive leadership type that is influenced by the dimensions it consists of.

Ikigai Leader Types
Figure 1: Ikigai Leader Types

An INNOVATOR Type leader for instance experiences is very confident to have all the necessary skills and capabilities required for the job and works with great passion and joy. However, all these positive aspects cannot cover this person’s lack of the necessary market know-how and a certain type of ignorance towards the needs of the world. This situation is bound to lead to frustration, since all the expertise and passion does not lead to the expected positive response of the market or of society.

The EXECUTIVE Type leader on the other hand is very successful in business, includes a good amount of capabilities, and makes sure sustainability and impact are taken into consideration. However, this person does not actually love what he or she does. This creates a feeling of emptiness and exhaustion. Work becomes the supplier of a good income, but does not provide a source of satisfaction or fulfilment. On the long-run these are the ingredients for overpowering stress and burnout.

By identifying these types, the route towards improvement becomes obvious. The Innovator Type needs to work on the development of business acumen and to expand the awareness to the environment and the needs of others. The Executive Type needs to identify and strengthen those parts of the job that he or she actually really loves and draw passion from there. Hence, the model with the connected assessment can be very useful for identifying the personal position in relation to a state of ikigai as the basis for informed development actions.

How does the concept of IKIGAI contribute to workplace culture?Organisational cultures can be assessed the same way leadership types can be determined – by their position in the model relative to the state of ikigai. When we measure the collective ikigai of an organisation on the four ikigai dimensions, we get their Ikigai Business types or cultures as figure 2 shows.

Ikigai Business Types
Figure 2: Ikigai Business Types

Again we can identify the collective strengths and weaknesses of the organisational culture to evaluate what has to be done to reach a state of ikigai – a sphere of non-exploitive dynamism and balanced collective flow producing high business performance as well as social and environmental impact at the same time. Again they Ikigai Business Type would indicate how to develop: a START-UP type organisational culture lack market know-how and can e.g. close this gap by adding strategic resources in that direction. A COMPLIANCE type organisation does the right things, but is hollowed out by a lack of passion and capabilities. That way the right organisational development strategy can be designed for each organisation in order to get to an ikigai culture.

A few tips on how leaders and managers can drive organisational purposeThe ikigai model can help to remove the individual and collective blind spots we may have developed over time. For that, however, it needs absolute honesty in the assessment and the will change. Far too often we are fooling ourselves sub-consciously trying to keep in our zone of relative comfort and to avoid an uncomfortable truth. Only the will to transform can open the way to embracing a new purpose and meaning.

Once you know your leader or business type the direction of the desired development becomes obvious and we may experience improvements. However, ikigai is no passive state. It is a highly dynamic sphere and we have to constantly make sure that we are on the right track in all four dimensions. So, we need a high degree of alertness not to become complacent and to keep our ikigai intact.

Additionally, when we assess purpose and meaning arriving at new perspectives and at a new level of awareness, we have to act in the face of reality. When we realise that we are still undervaluing sustainability and social impact in our business model for instance, there is no point in only superficially patching the problem instead of facing the consequences and engaging in deep rooted change action. The same is true on the individual level and I may have to confess to myself, that I am in the wrong position preventing me to thrive. Well, then it’s time to come up with alternatives for my own and the collective benefit.

There are some Japanese ideas on how to keep up your personal ikigai which can be translated to the business spheres as well. There is for instance the rule to never fill your stomach completely but to keep it at 80 % max in order not to get tired and complacent. This call for strategic reinvestments of profits instead of focussing on short-term material gains. Combined with the advice to play an active role in your community, it would call for societal contributions.

Lastly, ikigai leadership calls for humility and high ethical standards since these are the only ways to stay real and true to your purpose. A leader with a bloated ego may impress in the short run, but will be exposed in the long run. The same way exploitation of people and the environment may work short-term but is not sustainable as we all know.

For more information about the book, click here

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Natasha Winkler-Titus

New senior lecturer in Organisational Behaviour joins USB

USB News

New senior lecturer in Organisational Behaviour joins USB

  • December 15
  • Tags Our news, Leadership

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Natasha Winkler-TitusDr Natasha Winkler-Titus joined USB recently as a senior lecturer in Organisational Behaviour and Leadership. She is also the current President of the Society for Industrial and Organisational Psychology in South Africa (SIOPSA).

She was awarded the 2019 Organizational Psychology Practitioner of the year in South Africa and was awarded Best paper at the 2018 British Academy of Management (BAM) Annual conference in Bristol, UK. Natasha believes in using her influence and platforms to empower others toward significance and drive societal change and transformation.

Natasha holds a PhD in Organisational Psychology and is registered with the HPCSA and successfully worked at a strategic level with the executive teams of multinational organisations in South Africa and abroad. She believes in leading a purpose-driven life and during her free time she participates in community activities and also enjoys experiencing new things.

Read more in this interview.

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Prof Nicolene Wesson Virtual Inaugural Lecture 2020

Will mandatory audit firm rotation reduce audit market concentration in South Africa? | Prof Nicolene Wesson Virtual Inaugural Lecture 2020

USB News

Will mandatory audit firm rotation reduce audit market concentration in South Africa? | Prof Nicolene Wesson Virtual Inaugural Lecture 2020

Prof Nicolene Wesson Virtual Inaugural Lecture 2020
(Source: Supplied)

  • October 05
  • Tags Our news, inaugural lecture, audit market concentration, annual reports, accounting

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Prof Nicolene Wesson, who lectures Accounting and Taxation at USB, recently presented her inaugural lecture during a virtual presentation on whether mandatory audit firm rotation (MAFR) will reduce audit market concentration in South Africa.

She was the first woman to be promoted to full professorship at the business school in 2018.

She says an inaugural lecture is generally quite a daunting task. “The Covid-19 pandemic definitely added a new dimension to my experience, but I am grateful that I had the opportunity to share my research and that Stellenbosch University has put measures in place to allow for the continuance of the inaugural process.”

The topic of MAFR is contentious and limited research has been done on the topic in South Africa. “Being a chartered accountant myself, I am specifically interested in this field and want to contribute to knowledge by providing evidence-based research on a topic that is often debated based on anecdotal (unscientific) evidence.

“Mandatory audit firm rotation will come into effect in South Africa on 1 April 2023. Mandatory audit firm rotation in this country aims to enhance auditor independence, accelerate transformation and enable deconcentration in the audit profession. In my inaugural lecture I explored the effect of mandatory audit firm rotation on one of the focus areas of MAFR, namely audit market deconcentration,” she says.

Wesson used annual report disclosures on audit firm identity and audit firm tenure (with audit firm tenure only available as from 2016) to describe the audit market concentration over a nine-year period (2010-2018) and to provide insights into the possible effect of MAFR on audit market concentration.

On her findings she says: “My results confirmed that the Big 4 audit firms (namely PwC, Deloitte, KPMG and EY) dominate the South African audit market and that one of the Big 4 audit firms has a monopoly within the audit market. Increased audit market concentration (based on number of clients and audit firm rotation trends) was evident subsequent to the date that audit firm tenure disclosure came into effect. This disclosure on audit firm tenure is seen as to represent evidence of an auditor’s ‘independence in appearance’ and may have influenced companies’ decision to replace their auditors in anticipation of MAFR.

“Based on the Big 4 audit firm dominance and the sheer scale of audit firm rotations to be carried out in anticipation of MAFR, this study identified the possible impairment of audit quality and an increase in costs as unintended consequences of MAFR. The study proposes remedies to address these unintended consequences prior to 2023. Future research on MAFR-related topics – specifically focussing on audit quality and audit costs – is imperative to ascertain whether MAFR (in its proposed format) is the solution for South Africa,” she says.

Watch the full inaugural lecture here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MoPHGzPr8yU

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Africa 4IR

What can Africa contribute to the Fourth Industrial Revolution?

USB News

What can Africa contribute to the Fourth Industrial Revolution?

Africa 4IR

  • September 21
  • Tags Press release, Leadership, 4IR, Africa

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By Prof Martin Butler

The science fiction writer William Gibson remarked that “the future is already here – it is just not evenly distributed”. This is certainly true for the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR).

The First Industrial Revolution explains this perfectly. Even though certain communities and, to an extent, certain countries across the world did not know about the existence of the steam engine and industrialisation in Britain 250 years ago, it transformed the lives of thousands and then millions as it spread globally. That which was unique to parts of Britain in 1770, was well recognised and part of the new normal in 1860 in the developed world.

Fast forward to the Third Industrial Revolution (TIR) and some of the most innovative uses of mobile technologies take place on the African continent. Mobile money is one area where we lead the world in using technologies intrinsic to the TIR. When the World Bank needed the skills to head up mobile payments, they recruited a South African that cut his teeth in Kenya.

Although steam and railways (First Industrial Revolution), mechanisation (Second Industrial Revolution), and computing and automation (TIR) shaped the African content, we remained primarily consumers of the technologies developed in other places. Africa either adapted or implemented the technology owned by global organisations or continue to purchase the products and artefacts. For example, we do not design vehicles or mobile phones at a mass scale. Still, we will create factories to manufacture under licencing, or purchase the products arriving in our harbours.

Three of the industries bucking the trend are telecommunications, financial services and agriculture. Some companies and products in these industries are entirely home-grown, and large organisations that are significant players in these industries have partially transformed the image of the lagging continent as African innovations and role players are starting to shape the transactional environment.

The 4IR, often confused with the third that is all about computers and automation, is blurring the line between the physical and the digital. The omnipresence of technology, as well as significant advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, is transforming the work that can be performed by, and how we interact with, technology. This cyber-physical world is different from automation in many respects.

This transformation challenges the essence of humanity, our values and beliefs, and most importantly, how systems react in certain situations. Products of the TIR, like drones and computers, responded to inputs from their human masters. Products of the 4IR, like self-driving cars and autonomous weapons systems, react based on their ability to make sense of their environments by using complex logic that continues to evolve. However, at the core of their reactions is complex patterns devised by humans, or at least the methods in which this complex logic evolves.

…we could, and should, play an essential part in the complex ecosystems that allow this blurring of the physical and the digital.

I do not think African companies will become global role-players in developing automated vehicles or autonomous weapons systems. I do believe that we could, and should, play an essential part in the complex ecosystems that allow this blurring of the physical and the digital. Africa can contribute to the 4IR not by resisting the inevitable distribution of the future brought by the 4IR, but by actively seeking to address some of the biggest remaining problems to ensure universal value for all industries, communities, and citizens of her countries.

Facial recognition systems that dispatch a drone to arrest a criminal on Interpol’s most-wanted list, must not embed past biases in the recognition and decision-making process. Autonomous vehicle and weapons systems must have access to ethical frameworks and moral judgements to make the correct decisions. Capacity development initiatives for humans working shoulder-to-mechanical-shoulder with automated manufacturing lines, or with AI algorithms in financial services, must have the capacity to do so.

The question is often asked about the destruction of employment in the face of automation and the 4IR in particular. Our research indicates that total employment is not reduced; it just shifts as the economy restructures. Rather than asking about the number of workers that will be displaced by technologies, we need to ask how we capacitate our workers to exploit the many new opportunities created by the 4IR. Why can we not be proactive and lead the world in devising methods and models to reskill our workforce for the newly structured economy?

Yes, Africa will not necessarily create the artefacts or entire ecosystems of the 4IR. Still, I think we have a critical role to play in contributing to the reasoning and algorithms embedded in the systems. We also have an important contribution to make in defining and setting examples of building human capacities to exploit and use the new world unlocked by these systems.

…we can make a significant contribution towards long-term value from the 4IR by forming part of the critical conversations and implementations and reskilling of the workforce.

Business, in essence, remains relatively simple: create value for customers through the execution of operations. As new customer value is created, and operations are transformed by investments in 4IR technologies, we need to become part of the conversation about creating equitable value for all customers and providing skilled resources to execute operations that deliver the required value.

Although Africa will not necessarily produce the hardware and software at the centre of the 4IR, we can make a significant contribution towards long-term value from the 4IR by forming part of the critical conversations and implementations and reskilling of the workforce.

*

Prof Martin Butler is Head of Teaching and Learning at the University of Stellenbosch Business School (USB) in Cape Town, South Africa. He is also a Research Associate at the Institute for Futures Research (IFR). He holds an Electronic Engineering degree from the University of Pretoria, and an MBA (Cum Laude) and PhD from USB.

**

Butler was the presenter at a USB Alumni Webinar facilitated by the Ghana Chapter of the USB Alumni Association on Friday, 28 August 2020, where he addressed the above topic.

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gwo 2023

USB to host Gender, Work, and Organization (GWO) Conference in 2023

USB News

USB to host Gender, Work, and Organization (GWO) Conference in 2023

gwo 2023
Business people working in high-end modern office

  • September 14
  • Tags Press release, Women in business, Leadership, diversity, inclusion, gender

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The University of Stellenbosch Business School (USB) has been selected from a competitive round of applications received from around the globe, to host the Gender, Work and Organization (GWO) Conference in 2023.

The GWO provides an international forum for debate and analysis of contemporary matters affecting gender studies specifically related to the workplace.

With the theme Marginalized gender identities, Prof Anita Bosch, USB Research Chair of Women at Work will be the lead convenor together with Faith Ngunjiri from the Concordia College in the USA; Nasima Carrim from the University of Pretoria; and Ameeta Jaga from the University of Cape Town.

Prof Bosch said hosting the conference in 2023 will be a first for Africa and a major achievement given the significant positioning of the GWO in global business scholarship.

“USB is ideally placed to take the lead as host institution with our expertise in workplace gender studies and offers us the opportunity to showcase the high calibre of international scientific and scholarly pursuits on the African continent.

“We are extremely proud that USB has been recognised as a partner to the GWO which further strengthens the business school and Stellenbosch University’s international scientific standing.”

Attracting around 500 people from around the world, the conference convenes for interdisciplinary scholarly exchange. The conference evolved in recent years from the Gender, Work & Organization Journal, launched in 1994 and the first journal to provide an arena dedicated to debate and analysis of gender relations, the organisation of gender and the gendering of organisations. It is one of the top journals for explicitly feminist work in organisation studies. The recently released 2019 Impact Factor emphasised this with an increase to 3.101 and a position as the number one title in the ‘Women’s Studies’ Web of Science subject category.

Although initially bi-annually, the conference will be hosted annually from 2021. For 2021, University of Kent in the UK will be the host, followed by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia and the Universidad Santo Tomás, Bogotá, in Colombia in 2022.

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USB hosts book launch for ‘Fault Lines’ that explores the lasting effects of race and racism in South African society

USB News

USB hosts book launch for ‘Fault Lines’ that explores the lasting effects of race and racism in South African society

  • JUL 02
  • Tags Fault Lines, Book launch, Race, Science, Society, Black Lives Matter, Research

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A book exploring the lingering consequences of race and racism in South Africa and globally was launched during an online event hosted by the University of Stellenbosch Business School (USB) on Thursday, 25 June 2020.

‘Fault Lines: A primer on race, science and society’ delves into challenging questions such as, What is the link, if any, between race and disease? What are the roots of racial thinking in South African universities? Are new developments in genetics simply a backdoor for the return of eugenics?

Co-editor Prof Jonathan Jansen, distinguished professor of education at Stellenbosch University, said the issue is how to educationally address these concerns when people so often scream at each other when it comes to issues of race.

“When you talk to people about terrible racist actions and they say in response to the crisis, Wat het ons verkeerd gedoen? (What did we do wrong), my initial gut reaction was to say, Get real. But I then realised these were genuinely real responses,” he said.

“People don’t have a lot of patience with people who respond with, I really don’t know what I did wrong. Yet the more I thought about that for the past ten years or so, the more I realised that that is true.

There isn’t a moral consciousness that kicks in that says, ‘This is horrible’.
– Prof Jonathan Jansen

“My colleagues, my friends, my students really did not know what they did wrong. There isn’t a moral conscience that kicks in that says, This is horrible. And unless we understand that, you are not going to change the underlying behaviour,” he said.

Dr Cyrill Walters, lecturer on the MBA programme at USB and who co-edited the book, said that “when we talk about ‘Fault Lines’ it would be remiss of us not to mention Angela Saini’s book, ‘Superior: The Return of Race Science’.

Even when people have all the facts, they don’t necessarily want things to change.
– Dr Cyrill Walters

“She touches on ignorance. She says ignorance is probably part of the problem, but the problem is not only ignorance. Even when people have all the facts, they don’t necessarily want things to change,” she said. “Even if people know it’s wrong there’s absolutely no reason for them to commit.”

Ferial Haffajee, associate editor at the Daily Maverick, was a speaker and made reference to UCT Professor Nicoli Nattrass’s research that made headlines recently (the research suggested that black South African students are less likely to consider studying the biological sciences than other students).

“I didn’t know how to approach it because I don’t think its primarily an issue of academic freedom; it’s much more than that. She sent junior researchers out at lunch and they asked 112 students if they had pets, wanted to study conservation, and believed that Rhodes must fall.

“Stupid questions like those were going to beget the stupid answers that she got into a piece of research that to me is quite deformative, and I think Prof Nattrass knows that,” she added.

There are reasons why we should raise our voices against such research while standing up for the rights of academic freedom.
– Ferrial Haffajee

“We sit with three pages of work that finds black students are materialistic and not really interested in the natural science. There are reasons why we should raise our voices against such research while standing up for the rights of academic freedom,” Haffajee said.

She added that it was easy to debunk the Nattrass research with facts. “All I did was call up SANParks to find out that 13 of our 20 beautiful national parks are headed by black South Africans and all of the senior conservationists at SANParks are black South Africans. I think the kind of crude science-based research is really passé and should be on its way out across our campuses,” she said.

Journalist and political commentator Max du Preez, who was also a speaker, said the timing of the book could not have been better “even though the authors could not have known that its publication would coincide with the extraordinary worldwide movement #BlackLivesMatter, unleashed by the murder of George Floyd”.

“I am a bit of a cynic when it comes to human beings’ ability to change in a short amount of time but the scale and intensity of the present movement suggests that history would one day point out that this was a moment when attitudes and sensitivity towards race shifted meaningfully,” he said.

Things can go wrong for a very long time, but we only sit up and notice change when something dramatic happens that gets lots of media coverage.
– Max du Preez

He added: “This is how we roll as human beings. Things can go wrong for a very long time, but we only sit up and notice change when something dramatic happens that gets lots of media coverage.”

Prof Piet Naudé, USB Director, said in his introduction that the book appeared on the cusp of both national and international hard debates about race and other forms of isms in our society. “The reason why it is so important for us at the USB to part of this, is because we are part of South Africa.

“Our students, academics and international students are subject to the same kind of socialisation processes in South Africa. Therefore, there is no reason why we are less prone to racist attitudes, dismissive gender attitudes and issues of sexual orientation,” he said.

Dr Armand Bam, Head of Social Impact at USB, was the facilitator.


Watch the video here >>

Fault lines book launch

 

The book is available at:

Google Books: https://bit.ly/2X7tBN8

Amazon: https://amzn.to/3bJUNFV

ITSI: https://bit.ly/2wOV5wc

Takealot: https://bit.ly/3fII9c2

African Sun Media: [email protected] / 021 201 0071

In the media

New book Fault Lines explores the lingering effects of racism in academia; Daily Maverick

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